Successful Conferences and fruitful meetings in Singapore and KL
A Report by President David Newman
The biannual conference in Singapore, Wastemet, jointly organised by our National Member WMRAS and the NEA, is at the second edition in its currrent format. I really enjoyed my three days there.
The conference was well attended with numbers significantly up on 2012 and the level of the debate was very good. I personally chaired a session with the Second Minister of the Environment for Singapore, Ms Grace Fu present, as well as the Deputy Minister of the Environment for Japan, Dr Ryutaro Yatsu, and the Mayor of the City of Bandung in Indonesia, a dynamic young man called Ridwan Kamil. Deputy Mayor of Antwerp Philip Heylen, and UNEP-IETC Chief Arab Hoballah were also present.
Being a moderator of such well informed and illustrious guests is much harder than speaking oneself, and it kept me on my toes. The session was a success with a lively debate and questions from the floor.
I take this opportunity of thanking Melissa Tan and her team at WMRAS for the great hospitality which in Singapore, is second to none.
In Kuala Lumpur briefly after the Singapore meeting I joined Philip Heylen and the Belgian Ambassador in a meeting with the Malaysian Minister of Environment, again a dynamic young man named Datuk Abdul Rahman Dahlan, who much appreciated hearing about how Belgium has become one of the world’s recycling leaders, and how ISWA is working with the national association, WMAM, to build capacity in the region.
I take this opportunity of thanking Ho De Leong and his team at WMAM for their hospitality. That same day I gave a talk with students at the University of Malaysia, under Professor Agamuthu, and once they overcame their shyness and very useful discussion took place. Talking to students is one of my greatests joys because they give insights into our work which we fail to see most of the time. It was an entertaining few hours. Thank to Professor Agamuthu for organising this.
During these meetings the ISWA Board had to select one of the two candidates to organise the 2017 World Congress. The choice was between Baltimore in the USA and Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia. The USA won by one vote and you can imagine the disappointment among our colleagues in Malaysia when I visited there. But I urged them to try again in 2018. The quality of the meeting places, the cost effectiveness and the absolutely quality of the hotels and food, as well as its central position to Asia, make KL a very strong candidate for 2018.
Thermal recovery of Baled RDF from UK in Hamburg, Germany
A Report by Board Member Rüdiger Siechau
Thermal recovery of Baled RDF from UK in Hamburg, Germany
Experience summary from Stadtreinigung Hamburg (SRH)
Ever since Germany implemented the amendment of the European Waste Framework Directive into national law (amendment of the Waste Management and Product Recycling Act) in 2012, there has been increased activity in line with the 5 step waste hierarchy for the reduction of waste for thermal treatment. In Hamburg, SRH has been able to reduce the annual residual household waste by approximately 100,000 tons in 2013 compared to 2007. A major recycling campaign, a scaling up of the separate collection of waste, an increasing environmental awareness by the general public, economic influences and marginal activity in the trade and industry of product and packaging design have all played a role in the decline in the thermal treatment of waste.
Due to long planning periods for the capital intensive facilities, e.g., incineration plants, this development was unforeseeable and now must be determined on a case by case basis whether facilities, due to a lack of waste, should be closed or continue operation by acquiring additional waste.
Annually, SRH has approximately 1 million tons/a a waste treatment capacity at its disposal in own or contracted incineration plants. Since 1996, when the Waste Management and Product Recycling Act came into effect SRH has, as needed, acquired supplementary industrial waste for additional revenues throughout Germany in order to stabilize the household waste fees. These measures have proven to be effective and as such are a preferred measure over the closure of plants.
Depending on the economic situation nationally and the given waste policy in the EU over the past years, waste outside of Germany has also been disposed of in Hamburg. In 2007, household waste from Naples (Italy) and a few years before that bone meal (risk material) from Portugal and Ireland were also thermally treated in Hamburg with the help and support of the local government and within the framework of the “EU assistance measures”. One side benefit of these activities was that the Hamburg plants received a lot of recognition through the press coverage as well as positive certifications through the relevant EU departments.
The following is a short overview of SRH’s experience in handling household waste from England.
Stadtreinigung Hamburg (SRH) cooperated with an English company and a service provider from Denmark in order to import 30,000 tons of Baled RDF within a timeframe of about a year. The company from England supplied sorted waste (municipal and commercial), the Danish partner provided contract coordination, administration and logistic services and SRH treated the waste in its incineration plant in Hamburg Stellingen.
It is not possible to further recycle the sorted RDF so that, in England, it would have been landfilled because there are not enough incineration plants in England, yet. (New incineration plants are being planned.) In Germany, landfilling has been prohibited for years because of its negative effects on the environment. Emissions of methane are 21 times more harmful than the emissions of CO2 that the same amount of waste causes when treated in a waste-to-energy plant. Waste is thermally recovered to produce environment-friendly electric energy, process steam and heat. Even byproducts such as slags are re-used. Emissions produced by a modern recovery facility are far below legal limits.
The sorted waste was baled in England and then brought to Hamburg on truck trailers (via ferry to Cuxhaven). Because England imports more goods than it exports, there is a lot of otherwise unused capacity (trucks without cargo) on the way back from England to mainland Europe so that these transports did not generate extra traffic. SRH devised a very effective way of unloading the trailers by means of a mobile container ramp and unpacking the bales with a self-made bale knife.
In February 2013, Hamburg authority BSU (Environmental Department) was notified about the waste transfer. In the preliminary stage of the authorization process it was necessary, as was the case in the past, to convince the local government of the value and purpose of the business. Both in terms of the economy and the environment it was necessary to prevent the disposal of foreign waste in Hamburg at the expense of its citizens. The local government became convinced of the merits of deal after contemplating the economic as well as the environmental aspects. Similarly, EU-wide waste transfers in the past helped to gain both political and public support.
Between May 2013 and March 2014, 26,911 tons of English Baled RDF was thermally treated in Hamburg. Stadtreinigung Hamburg invoiced the supplier every month for the tonnage of Baled RDF delivered and accepted (less any demurrage claimed, and plus any costs for the disposal of non-compliant RDF). The service provider invoiced the supplier for the service fee. Within 30 days, the supplier paid by bank transfer to the designated bank accounts. It also paid for the transport. The price for the waste treatment was comparable to the conditions for domestic waste volumes on the spot market.
The partnership was successful and cooperation between the three partners was good.
2º International Congress on Solid Waste Management in Mexico
A Report by Past President Atilio Savino
I have had the pleasure to be present in the 2º International Congress on Solid Waste Management in Mexico, 3-5 June, on behalf of David Newman and representing ISWA as past-President.
I was honoured to be the key note speaker at the opening ceremony. The title of my presentation was: "Situación y perspectiva en la Gestión Integral de Residuos Sólidos. El nuevo paradigma desde una visión latinoamericana del mismo" / "Situation and perspective in Integrated Solid Waste Management. The new paradigm from a Latin American vision".
The Congress was organized by the Government of the Mexico City DF and with the participation of the Environmental Secretariat of the National Government.
There were more than 500 participants and representatives form the different Mexican states and form many countries of Latin America.
Municipal Waste Management in the Republic of Moldova
A Report by Board Member Alexei Atudorei
On 27 June 2014 the EU will sign Association Agreements with Georgia and the Republic of Moldova and complete the signature process with Ukraine, each providing for a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area.
This is an important moment both for the EU and for the countries concerned as the Agreements will significantly deepen political and economic ties between the signatories with a long-term perspective of closer political association and economic integration. Main areas of cooperation are: core reforms, values and trade.
The Republic of Moldova is 33,840 km2, and it is one of the smaller European countries, ranked 32nd, and is located in the southeastern part of Europe at the intersection of Central Europe with Eastern and Southern Europe. The territory of the country is crossed in the middle by the meridian 28°50′ E and the parallel 47° N. The Republic of Moldova is a country situated in the Black Sea and Danube River basins, and neighbored by Ukraine and Romania. During the reference period, the population of the Republic of Moldova decreased from 3,581,110 inhabitants on January 01, 2007, down to 3,563,695 inhabitants on January 01, 2011. The territory of the Republic of Moldova is organized in villages, cities, districts, and two autonomous territorial units – the Gagauzia Autonomous Unit and the Administrative Territorial Unit on the left side of the Nistru.
The waste management problem in Moldova is becoming more acute due to increased quantity and diversity of waste, as well as its impact on the environment. The activities of municipal waste management are developed based on:
- Government Decision No. 248/2013 for the approval of National Waste Management Strategy for the period 2013 – 2027;
- Solid Waste Management Strategy for Region South, enforce from December 2011,
- Law of Waste (draft law in Parliament).
The total quantity of waste generated in Republic of Moldova in 2010 was 5,821.4 tons from which mining waste represented 96% and municipal household 1%.
Waste from livestock decreased from 370 thousand tons (2005) to 92,800 tons (2010). Waste from the food and beverage industry, from 278 tons to 38 tons respectively. The amount of household waste, plant growing waste, and secondary metallurgy materials decreased, but the amount of waste from the forestry industry increased.
Hazardous industrial waste is collected by generating units and delivering them to companies specialized in transportation and capitalization of hazardous materials (the quantity generated in 2010 was cca. 900 tons).
The total production of hazardous waste generated by medical activities (MAW) is evaluated between 10 and 11 tons of waste per day (cca. 4,000 tons per year). About 30 percent of daily production of MAW is concentrated in Chișinău, capital of Republic of Moldova (cca. 3 tons per day).
Currently, with the notable exception of pathological waste, which is incinerated in a crematorium, all others waste produced by the largest hospitals in Chișinău is dumped in the public landfill of Chișinău.
About 98% of the total generated municipal waste is deposited each year. Land surface allocated for waste storage increased over 5 years because of the increased quantity of municipal solid waste generated.
Some statistics data form 2013 concerning household are listed below.
- Quantity of household generated in rural areas is 0.3 - 0.4 kg/capitaxday and in the urban areas is 0.9 kg/capitaxday;
- Number of dumps for municipal waste disposal is 1,867; total surface is 206.5 hectares; over 70% of dumps are in operation from 20 -30 years;
- There is no clear statistic data regarding the quantity of municipal waste generated in Moldova, but in 2013, the amount of municipal waste collected by specialized firms’ services of the municipalities was 550,000 tons;
- Quantities of packaging waste separately collected are very low, the capacities of existing sorting plants are small and rely only in manual sorting; sorted materials are exported;
- There are not composting plants for household, facilities for treatment of construction and demolition waste and facilities for dismantling WEEE, in order to be recycled.
Key priorities for the future are: creating the network for separate waste collection, sanitation services, recycling, processing, and storage.
The future activity on waste management will be developed in compliance with the provisions from Government Decision No. 248/2013 for the approval of National Waste Management Strategy for the period 2013 – 2027, which takes into considerations all the basic concepts and definitions related to waste management from UE Directive 2008/98/EC on Waste.
Waste management activities will be focused on promoting and implementing an integrated municipal and industrial waste management system at regional levels, creating collection and selective pre- collection systems, transport and material recovery of waste in all regions, improving the waste transportation system by completing and increasing the quantity of specialized waste transport equipment, of unattractive waste such as waste oils, batteries, textiles, glass, plastics, tires into the circuit; reduction/elimination of the current impact of urban and rural sanitation and storage systems of non-organic and industrial waste on public health and the environment; waste and toxic chemical management; and the construction of regional landfills and establishment of transfer stations.
Projection of quantities of municipal solid waste that will be generated in the period 2013 – 2027, has considered: value of gross domestic product (GDP), projection of population, projection of economic activities on county level, projection on the revenue of population, etc.
The quantities of municipal solid waste generated in Moldova will increase from 5 million tons in 2015 to 8 million tons in 2027.
The general objectives for municipal solid waste management are:
- Implementation of integrated waste management systems in compliance with EU standards, based on regional approach and dividing the country in 8 regions;
- Increasing the amount of waste recycled and recovered with 20-30% by 2027 by promoting the separate collection of DMS and increase energy recovery capabilities;
- Reducing the amount of biodegradable waste landfilled by creating composting capacities in transfer stations and waste processing centers;
- Development of collection and treatment of specific waste streams (packaging, WEEE, tires, batteries, end of life vehicles, aso) by promoting and implementing the principle of "producer responsibility", including for hazardous waste (medical waste, waste oil etc), one collection center in each of the 8 regions.
Key of Intervention
- Acquisition and installation of selective collection systems (4 fractions, paper, plastic, glass, others);
- Construction of sorting, composting and disposal facilities (2 mechanical-biological treatment plants in Bălți and Chișinău regions and 7 landfills in the other regions – investment costs – 340 millions Euro);
- Acquisition of waste transport vehicles;
- Construction of municipal waste disposal facilities and transfer stations;
• increase the population covered by municipal waste collection and management services of adequate quality and at affordable tariffs;
• reduce the quantity of landfilled waste;
• increase the quantity of recycled and reused waste;
• set up efficient waste management structures;
• reduce the impact of waste management on environment and public health.
In the future, a part of the investments will be supported by EU as a grant but only after the harmonization of the existing legislation in Republic of Moldova with EU legislation, the Law of Waste will be promulgated and a National Plan for Waste Management will be elaborated and approved.
Some companies involved in waste management in Republic of Moldova have set-up in May 2014 a national professional association, National Association for Solid Waste from Republic of Moldova, MOLDSWA.
The preparations for set-up the association started in November 2013 and were done with the support of ISWA, through Regional Development Network Southeast Europe, Middle East and Mediterranean representative (Dr.eng. Alexei Atudorei) and Romanian Association for Solid Waste Management (ARS).
The association has the same objectives as ISWA, as are:
• supports the introduction of scientific and technical progress in waste management - for increased comfort and quality of life of residents and protection and conservation of the environment;
• initiate actions consultation, development and promotion of the legislative proposals needed improvement in waste management service;
• facilitate the exchange of ideas, solutions, techniques, studies and applied research and experiments in the field;
• facilitate the participation of its members in manifestations of scientific-technical meeting on national and international level.
MOLDSWA wants to become ISWA National Member and will send the application forms to ISWA Secretariat in Vienna.
• Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Moldova, Institute of Ecology and Geography, State of Environment, 2007 – 2010;
• Svetlana Bolocan, Ministry of Environment of Republic of Moldova, National Conference in Waste Management, Romania, Mamaia, June 2014, presentation “Waste Management in Republic of Moldova”.
Mumbai: City of garbage hits a dead end
An Interview Board Member Amiya Sahu gave to the 'Indian Express' on Municipal Waste Management in Mumbai
Of the 1,27,486 tonnes of waste generated daily in India in 2011-12, Mumbai alone accounted for 6.11 per cent. It is estimated that every resident in the metropolis now generates about 630 grams of waste daily, a figure that is expected to touch 1 kg in the coming years. Land-starved that the city is, this leaves its planners with an extremely difficult choice — where to dump?
The predicament, coupled with concerns for high-level emissions of greenhouse gases from the city’s unsanitary landfills and the growth of bacteria that cause life-threatening diseases, has fuelled the prospects of the waste management industry, which has yet to firmly establish itself in India. Estimates suggest that the Rs 60,000-crore industry has the potential to grow at 10-15 per cent a year. Foretelling the latent possibilities of this business, Dr Amiya Sahu, president of National Solid Waste Association of India (NSWAI) and member of the Planning Commission’s task force for Solid Waste Management (SWM), says, “Garbage is money, if handled properly.”
While the quantum of garbage generated by the city is only expected to increase, the infrastructure necessary to manage it is still not in place. The Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) has ambitious plans to process and manage the 7,000-8,000 metric tonnes (MT) of waste generated daily. But since the formulation of the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Rules (management and handling) in 2000, most of these ideas have either failed to take off the drawing board or are poorly implemented today.
Environmentalists believe the BMC’s current policies are in violation of MSW Rules, 2000, as the corporation allows compactor trucks to collect mixed waste and fails to penalise buildings that do not segregate waste. In February last year, a circular issued by deputy municipal commissioner (SWM) Prakash Patil stated that by July 2013, the corporation would stop accepting mixed waste and issue legal notices to housing societies that fail to segregate waste at the source. The big announcement, however, fell flat as the corporation failed to provide vehicles for collecting dry waste from housing societies. Since last year, the corporation has been working on a long-term plan to ensure 100 per cent segregation by March 2015. The plan has yet to be finalised.
“Segregation was widely successful between 1997 and 2004, where the civic body roped in ALMs to encourage composting in an effort to decentralise waste management. But the current policy, of awarding centralised contracts to private companies running compactor trucks and paying a tipping fee to private contractor (the case in Kanjurmarg) for every tonne of waste accepted at the dumpyard, reverses the previous successful policies,” Rishi Aggarwal, a research fellow with Observer Research Foundation, says adding that the civic body has failed to make residents a partner in solid waste management, but has put its faith in private parties to manage waste.
Questions have been repeatedly raised over the quality of service provided by the contractors in collection and transportation of waste. Critics say while the BMC has an elaborate system in place for collection and transportation of waste, there are no real-time checks in place to see if the appointed contractors are following specifications. In a major health hazard, conservancy workers involved in collection, transportation and disposal continue to work without wearing the prescribed rubber gloves, face masks, reflector jackets and safety shoes.
In a bid to introduce remote real-time monitoring of the system, the civic body is now working with global analytical company CRISIL to develop a software that will facilitate checks with minimum dependence on on-site employees. “We are working on removing the human element in the monitoring of all services. Instead of assigning officers to inspect the work, it will be monitored from the offices through live feeds,” says Patil.
The initiative is part of the civic body’s attempt to comply with standards set by the Ministry of Urban Development’s (MoUD) for urban local bodies to enhance the quality of civic amenities. Apart from effective garbage collection, the civic body will also have to ensure 80 per cent recovery of collected waste through recycling, 100 per cent scientific disposal of municipal solid waste, 100 per cent cost recovery in SWM services and 90 per cent efficiency in collection of SWM charges.
Starting with collection, Dr Sahu says, BMC should first provide the necessary infrastructure to encourage segregation. “If BMC wants to increase segregation of waste, it will first have to invest in more dust bins for Mumbai. Different dust bins for different types of waste should be provided so that residents are publicly educated to segregate wet waste from paper, plastic, glass and metal. Even the community waste bins today are overflowing and unsanitary. If they are better designed, we can use these effectively,” says Dr Sahu.
In early 2013, the corporation had announced plans to acquire 20,000 waste bins that would promote segregation. However, so far, it is yet to float a tender.
While BMC anticipates an increase in the amount of waste generated over the next 20 years, its SWM department claims that through these plans for segregation and waste-processing, the amount of waste that reaches the city’s three dumping grounds (currently 7000-8000 MT) will be limited to less than 10,000 MT.
According to Dr Sahu, the corporation would be better able to achieve this if it invested in built-in shredders for dry waste vehicles travelling to dumping grounds. “The amount of dry waste that is actually transported to the dumping grounds is half of the vehicle’s carrying capacity. It is an absolute waste of fuel and space. If the corporation uses vehicles with built-in shredders, fewer trips will be needed and more waste can be transported, thus saving up on fuel costs and other related expenses,” he says.
Mumbai’s three dumping grounds in question are Deonar, Mulund and the recently created Kanjurmarg landfill. The Kanjurmarg dumping ground has been stuck in litigation in the Bombay High Court as environmental organisations including the Maharashtra Coastal Zone Management Authority (MCZMA) have alleged illegal dumping on wetlands and coastal regulatory zone (CRZ) areas that fall within the landfill site’s area of 141 hectares.
Deonar, along with Mulund landfill, was slated for closure five years ago in 2009. On account of the legal complications with Kanjurmarg, Deonar continues to be overburdened with the bulk of the city’s garbage (5,500 MT) being dumped here.
Moreover, while the height of the waste tower at Deonar has reached about 55 metres, as against the 35-metre cap mandated by the Airports Authority of India, none of the dumping grounds have a single waste processing unit despite Mumbai’s high generation of waste.
In a futile exercise, the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) has served the two landfills notices for failing to comply with the standards set by MSW Rules, 2000. In fact, for the Mulund landfill, MPCB’s sub-regional officer V N Patil has even submitted a proposal for the forfeiture of BMC’s bank guarantee for non-compliance of MSW rules.
“We plan to set up a biomethanation plant at Mulund dumping ground, but we are currently in the process of terminating the contract with its landfill manager. Once the process is over, we will float tenders for setting up the plant there,” a civic official said.
The official added that to ensure the pressure on landfills does not increase drastically, waste-processing plants at transfer stations and composting sites at civic markets and gardens in each of Mumbai’s 24 wards have been planned in the forthcoming Development Plan.
“This can later be used as manure for plants in the area. This will also reduce the pressure on the eastern suburbs, which is currently where all of the city’s landfills are located. Even the debris that is mixed with the MSW can be reused for construction material,” the official said.
Activists, however, feel the corporation should engage itself more closely with the landfill management activities.
Dr Sahu says, “In the long run, the city would benefit better from waste management if the municipality itself owned the plants. In foreign countries such as Sweden and France, where waste-processing technologies are successfully carried out in a big way, the municipality owns the plant. Only if the corporation is in control of these establishments will it understand the nuances of waste management in a city.”
Till these plans take off, Kanjurmarg is the city’s only landfill where construction of a bio-reactor is already under way. Still, Dr Sahu contends that the waste-processing technology does not do much for the garbage that will collect at the landfill site.
“A bio-reactor at Kanjurmarg would merely make the dumping ground a secure landfill as mandated by the 2000 MSW Rules as it is also located away from habitation. The bio-reactor basically ensures the methanisation of bio-degradable waste for fuel purposes. But it does not specifically process waste for energy. Moreover, on account of the terrain of the land which is mainly marshy in nature, effective fuel generation from waste cannot be carried out,” says Dr Sahu. He suggests that for increased production of methane, the corporation could mix sewerage sludge with the wet waste as it will generate better results for producing energy.
THE ROAD AHEAD
Recently, in 2013, the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) brought out a draft revision of the 2000 rules which, though yet to be gazetted, focus on incineration as a method of processing and disposing waste. Encouraged by this, BMC has floated an expression of interest (EOI) to set up a 1000-tonne waste-to-energy (W2E) incineration plant at Deonar. While the EOI received tremendous response with 22 international firms participating in the bids, there is no proof of successful implementation of this processing method in India to date, despite several attempts in various states including the national capital.
“So far, incineration plants only burn waste and have failed to convert this into energy. The plant at Vijayawada in Andhra Pradhesh was the first to be set up, and it has now closed down. Similar plants in Hyderabad and Lucknow have also been shut. In Delhi, there was a plant set up by a Danish company that eventually failed. Another incineration plant set up there by the Jindal group too has run into problems as it does not have a proper cleaning system, leading to a lot of smoke generation while processing through the furnace,” says Dr Sahu.
Dr Sahu recommends the diversification of waste processing technologies. “If we have different types of waste processors, we can effectively handle different compositions of waste coming from different parts of the city as the demographics in Mumbai are highly varied. We should have a combination of technologies including incineration, pyrolysis, gasification, and biomethanisation,” he says.
Offering another solution to decrease the amount of waste reaching the landfill, Aggarwal suggests financial incentives for conscientious citizenry to promote segregation at the source.”Instead of paying the contractors for accepting waste at landfills, property tax rebates should be given to buildings that generate minimal garbage and segregate waste,” said Aggarwal. In an example of minimal amount of waste reaching landfills, 95 per cent of the waste generated from the construction of Chhatraparti Shivaji International Airport terminal T2 was will be reused at the site for levelling and filling purposes. “Some of the waste material such as steel and cement blocks has been sold to vendors and dealers. Meanwhile, the waste material that cannot be reused or sold has been donated for use in other sites,” said M Anand, principal counsellor, Indian Green Building Council, the agency which rated the structure for its green design.
The journey from doorstep to landfill
* Every housing society appoints a garbage collector to carry out door-to-door collection. The collected waste is then handed over to the municipal corporation’s garbage collection vehicles.
* Garbage transportation vehicles begin their journey every day at 7 am when they report to Motor Loader (ML) Chowks of each ward. At the chowk, every vehicle’s attendance is recorded and the collectors are handed tools and equipment for collection along with a log sheet of various garbage collection points for the day.
* There are 3,751 collection points in the city. As per the MSW Rules of 2000, the collection equipment must include face masks, rubber gloves, reflector jackets and safety shoes, though conservancy workers in Mumbai are invariably seen without these tools.
* Garbage is collected from slum areas through community-based organisations (CBOs) under the slum adoption scheme (Swachcha Mumbai Prabodhan Abhiyan). The CBOs deposit the waste into the civic body’s 5800 community waste bins stationed at various points across Mumbai.
* According to the civic SWM department, one tempo travels to each ward daily to collect dry waste, which is then sold off to recycling agencies.
*The ward checkpoints, SWM employees verify if the vehicles are filled to the brim. Smaller collection vans are dispatched to transfer stations where the garbage is loaded into bigger vehicles and transported to the dumping grounds.
*Currently, waste is only transported to Deonar (5,500 metric tonnes daily) and Mulund (2000 to 3000 metric tonnes). Bigger collection vehicles such as compactors and hook leaf containers are sent directly to the dump yards, where authorities weigh the vehicles and log in the their attendance. The vehicles wait in a queue and are let into the grounds in a single file to offload the waste at the designated spot.
Editor’s Pick for the June issue of WM&R
Each month the Editor of 'Waste Management & Research' hand-selects a leading paper from the latest publication, which is available to download for free.
The chosen article for June is: “Assessment methods for solid waste management: A literature review” by Astrid Allesch and Paul H Brunner.
Associate Editor of WM&R, Rodrigo Navia, commented on the selection:
“In this work, it is well established that assessment methods are useful tools to support decisions regarding waste management, being the support of stakeholders one of the most common goals. These studies use very frequently life cycle assessments and, in addition, scenario analysis to identify the best waste management options. Most of these studies focus on municipal solid waste and consider specific environmental loadings and economic aspects.
However, only a few number of studies evaluate social aspects. System elements and boundaries can vary significantly among the studies and thus, assessment results can be sometimes contradictory as concluded by the authors. The results of this review are quite robust, as authors recommend a mass balance approach based on a rigid input–output analysis of the analyzed system, coupled with a goal-oriented evaluation of the results of the mass balance and a transparent and reproducible presentation of the methodology, data, and results assessing waste management systems.
Without any doubt, an excellent paper of Astrid Allesch and Paul H. Brunner!”
Read the Editor’s Choice article for free here.
The Table of Contents of the June issue is available at: http://wmr.sagepub.com/content/32/6.toc
The Editorial for the June issue is also available to read for free: Is there still a role for composting? By Cecilia Sundberg and Rodrigo Navia.